Detection of Coliform Bacteria in Raw Milk Samples Collected from Industrial Cities of Pakistan

Coliform Bacteria in Raw Milk


  • Andleeb Aslam Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Javed Iqbal Qazi Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ali Hasan Honeybee Research Garden, Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Ahsan Raza Department of Zoology, Government Graduate College (Boys), Satellite town, Gujranwala, Pakistan



Coliforms, Heavy Metals, Antibiotic Resistance, Milk Quality, Health Status


Antibiotics and heavy metals-resistant bacteria in livestock environments can result in economic losses and raise public health and environmental problems. There is a crisis in the world's access to and pipeline for antibiotics. Objective: To screen raw milk samples collected from three different industrial cities Gujranwala, Lahore, and Sheikhupura, situated in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: In this regard, a total of 26 samples were having 84 coliform strains. Separated coliform colonies were processed for Gram's staining, catalase, indole production, and Simmon's citrate and motility tests. Results: Metal resistance of bacterial strains was also checked and 39.5% and 45.23% of bacteria were found to be resistant to ZnCl2 1% and 0.5%. 69.045% and 77.38% bacteria were found to be resistant to CuSo4 salt solution1% and 0.5%. 17.85% and 27% bacteria were found to be resistant to Na2CrO4 salt solution1% and 0.5% respectively. 80% of bacteria were found to be resistant to Cefuroxime, 26.19% to Cephradine, 84.52% to Aztroeonam 41.67% to Erythromycin, 91.667% to Trimethoprim 89.28% to Lincomycins. Conclusions: The raw milk samples were not only contaminated with coliforms but the bacteria were also resistant to heavy metals and certain antibiotics which might be considered indicative of industrial and anthropogenic pollution. Cephradine, 84.52% to Aztroeonam 41.67% to Erythromycin, 91.667% to Trimethoprim 89.28% to Lincomycins. Conclusions: The raw milk samples were not only contaminated with coliforms but the bacteria were also resistant to heavy metals and certain antibiotics which might be considered indicative of industrial and anthropogenic pollution.


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DOI: 10.54393/fbt.v4i01.90
Published: 2024-03-31

How to Cite

Aslam, A., Qazi, J. I., Hasan, A., & Raza, M. A. (2024). Detection of Coliform Bacteria in Raw Milk Samples Collected from Industrial Cities of Pakistan: Coliform Bacteria in Raw Milk. Futuristic Biotechnology, 4(01), 19–27.