Futuristic Biotechnology https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt <p><strong>Title of Journal: Futuristic Biotechnology</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: (E) 2959-0981, (P) 2959-0973</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Quarterly (w.e.f September Issue, 2023)</strong></p> <p><strong>Publisher: Lahore Medical Research Center <sup>LLP</sup></strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></span></p> <p>Futuristic Biotechnology (FBT) publishes broad-spectrum publications with close connection to experimental activity in Biological and Biotechnology fields. FBT is intended for exploring the molecular mechanisms that support key biological processes in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biosciences, molecular biology, plant biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and bioinformatics. Furthermore, it also covers topics related to immunology, antibody production, protein purification studies, primer synthesis, DNA sequencing, production of transgenic animal models, insect resistant crop varieties and edible and ornamental plant varieties.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 25000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version: Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy: Rs 2500/-</p> <p><strong>Submissions</strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></u></p> en-US <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></p> editor@fbtjournal.com (Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob) oric@lmrc.com.pk (khurram Mehboob) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 CRISPR-Cas9: The Future of Precision Genome Engineering https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/35 <p>CRISPR-Cas9, a revolutionary gene-editing tool, has garnered significant attention in the scientific community and beyond. This innovative technology holds immense promise for precision genome engineering, enabling scientists to modify DNA with unprecedented accuracy. The potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9 are vast, ranging from treating genetic disorders to enhancing agricultural crops. As we delve into the era of personalized medicine and genetic advancements, CRISPR-Cas9 emerges as a game-changer in the field of biotechnology. At the core of CRISPR-Cas9 lies its ability to precisely target and edit specific genes within the genome. This powerful tool utilizes RNA molecules as guides to direct the Cas9 enzyme to the desired DNA sequence, where it makes precise cuts. By introducing modifications or repairs to the DNA at these targeted sites, researchers can potentially correct genetic mutations responsible for diseases. The ability to edit the human genome with such precision offers hope for treating previously incurable genetic disorders and improving patient outcomes.</p> <p>Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has implications beyond human health. It has the potential to revolutionize agriculture by enhancing crop resistance to pests, improving yields, and reducing the need for harmful pesticides. By modifying specific genes in plants, scientists can develop crops that are more resilient to environmental stressors, ultimately contributing to global food security and sustainability efforts. Despite its immense potential, CRISPR-Cas9 also raises ethical considerations and concerns. The technology's power to edit the human germline raises questions about the potential for unintended consequences and the need for responsible use. The scientific community and policymakers must engage in thoughtful discussions and establish guidelines to ensure the ethical and responsible implementation of CRISPR-Cas9.</p> <p>CRISPR-Cas9 represents a landmark advancement in precision genome engineering, offering unprecedented opportunities to reshape the future of healthcare and agriculture. By harnessing its potential, we can envision a world where previously untreatable genetic diseases are curable, crops are more resilient and productive, and our understanding of the genetic basis of life is deepened. However, as we embrace the future of CRISPR-Cas9, it is crucial to navigate the ethical implications and ensure responsible use to maximize the benefits and minimize potential risks. The potential of this transformative technology is immense, and its impact on society will be profound.</p> Muhammad Akram Tariq Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/35 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Anti-Hypertensive Drug Atenolol on Liver Function by Evaluating ALT levels https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/36 <p>Hypertension is one of the major causes of cardiovascular and renal pathologies and it is mainly characterized by high blood pressure in blood vessels. Many drugs have been developed to treat hypertension, but these drugs have several side effects. Atenolol belongs to the beta blocker drug class and is used to treat hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. It is an anti-beta-adrenergic agent which inhibits beta receptors in the heart to decrease blood pressure. It has several side effects including hepatic dysfunctions. <strong>Objective:</strong> To analyze the effects of atenolol on hepatic dysfunction by evaluating the ALT level in patients taking either atenolol alone or in combination with other hypertensive drugs. <strong>Methods:</strong> The change in ALT levels were measured upon treatment of atenolol alone or in combination with other anti-hypertensive drugs. Out of selected 80 patients, 43 had been taking atenolol alone, 37 were taking atenolol in combination with other anti-hypertensive drugs and 20 were healthy controls. Micro-laboratory tests were performed for measuring the ALT levels. <strong>Results: </strong>Atenolol did not affect the ALT levels of any group, neither alone nor in combination with other hypertensive drugs. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Atenolol may cause hepatic dysfunction but according to this study it does not cause change in ALT level of blood and ALT is not elevated in all liver dysfunction as have been reported earlier so it didn’t diminish the chance of effect of atenolol on liver functions. Further this study may be employed on larger patient groups for strengthening the outcomes of this study.</p> Maria Fareed Siddiqui, Mehreen Rasheed, Ahmad Alwazzan, Sadia Sarwar Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/36 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rhizosphere: An Ideal Site for PGPR Screening https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/32 <p>Rhizosphere is the thin layer of soil surrounding plant roots and play important role in plant-bacterial interactions. This rhizospheric region around plant roots is an area rich in plant growth promoting bacteria. These plant-associated bacteria usually promote plant growth through various direct or indirect mechanisms including phosphorous solubilization, phytohormone production, nitrogen fixation, iron sequestration via siderophores and production of extracellular polymeric substances etc. PGPR modify root system of plants by the production of various phytohormones which facilitate the uptake of nutrients from soil more efficiently resulting in enhanced plant growth. <strong>Objective:</strong> To study the growth conditions of bacterial isolates.<strong> Methods:</strong> In the current study, rhizobacterial isolates have been isolated from indigenous environment and characterized macroscopically, microscopically, and biochemically. These isolates have been biochemically identified using Bergey’s Manual of systematic bacteriology and using ABIS 7 online software and evaluated for their various growth promoting attributes. <strong>Results:</strong> AS2 was identified as Bacillus sp., while AS3 and AS4 were identified as Pseudomonas sp. All three strains exhibited auxin production, nitrogen fixation, and HCN production capabilities. However, AS4 lacked ammonification and zinc solubilization potential, and AS3 lacked ACC deaminase activity. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It is concluded that these bacterial isolates have ability to promote plant growth. These bacterial isolates can be further used for plant stimulating agents for sustainable agriculture practices.</p> Ambreen Ahmed, Aqsa Tariq Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/32 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of Peach Juice as Substrate for Lactobacillus casei to Develop Probiotic Beverage https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/37 <p>The probiotic<em> L. casei</em> is proved to be very effective against pathogenic microorganisms. Peach fruit is a packed with bundle of nutrients which can be utilized for medicinal purpose i.e. anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammation, improve vision and to treat cardiovascular diseases. <strong>Objective:</strong> To develop peach based probiotic beverage. <strong>Methods:</strong> Peach pulp were fermented at different temperature using probiotic <em>Lactobacillus casei</em> to develop peach based probiotic beverage. The developed beverage was then examined for physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics. The obtained data was subjected to the statistical analysis. <strong>Results:</strong> The pH, sugar acid ratio, total soluble solids and total sugars decreased significantly throughout the storage period whereas acidity, total plate count and total probiotic count was increased significantly. Total plate count and probiotic count ranged from 5.27 to 9.83 CFU/mL and 8.29 to 12.68 CFU/mL, respectively. As the sensory properties of developed beverage are concerned; color, taste, flavor, odor and overall acceptability decreased significantly throughout storage period. The T<sub>2</sub> was assigned maximum scores by the panelists for the sensory characteristics. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was concluded that peach based probiotic beverage can be developed by using isolated <em>Lactobacillus casei.</em></p> Sehrish Parveen, Qura tul Ain Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/37 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sesquiterpene Lactones as Potential Cyclin B1/CDK1 Complex Inhibitors https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/38 <p>Cancer is second most common cause of death globally. Uncontrolled regulation of cell cycle may cause various cancerous anomalies. <strong>Objective:</strong> To Identify of Sesquiterpene Lactones (SLs) as inhibitors of Cyclin B1 (CB1) and Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1 (CDK1) complex. <strong>Methods:</strong> Checkpoints proteins (CDK1/CB1) of G2/M phase have been assessed with three SLs (ilicol, eucalyptone and ascleposide E) through molecular docking study. AutoDock Vina (ADV), PyMol version-2.5.2 and BIOVIA Discovery Studio 2021 was used for the visualization of docking analysis. <strong>Results:</strong> Outcomes of the current investigations reveal that ascleposide E exhibit the highest binding affinity of -7.1 kcal/mol (with inhibition constant of 5.9 µM) with CDK1 and CB1. Both potential complexes have shown good hydrogen bond interactions. Drug likeness of selected drug candidates were validated by ADMET analysis and Lipinski’s rule of 5. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Present study concluded that Ascleposide E have greater inhibition potential against CB1/CDK1 protein complex by making hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, this selected compound showed favorable drug likeness profiling. To validate the inhibitory activity of Ascleposide E to greater extent, further <em>in vitro</em> investigations are recommended to develop this compound into novel G2/M phase inhibitors.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Aqsa Zaman, Zoufishan Yousaf, Sameena Gul, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/38 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 In Silico Assessment of Post Translational Modifications Caused by NRAS Gene SNPs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/33 <p>Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a blood cancer and a malignant disorder of the bone marrow in which hematopoietic precursors are ceased at an early stage of development, preventing them from differentiating. The NRAS gene plays a vital role in regulating cell division. The mutation in this gene leads to an increased activity of the RAS pathway, increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis rates which causes AML. <strong>Objective:</strong> To identify the deleterious SNPs involved in AML and to further analyze them using bioinformatics tools. <strong>Methods:</strong> The missense nsSNPs (Q61H, Q61L, G13V, G13R, and G12A) of NRAS were retrieved from NCBI databases. <strong>Results:</strong> Using <em>in silico</em> analysis, it was found that these pathogenic SNPs could disrupt the protein stability. These mutations were present in the conserved region and had the potential to significantly alter the protein's secondary structure and impair its functionality. The structural effect of mutations was observed by generating 3D models. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins refers to the chemical modifications that occur after a protein is formed to make it functionally capable. Analyzing PTMs via <em>in silico</em> analysis revealed that missense mutations affect protein functionality. The level of methylation was significantly high in AML patients. These SNPs might affect additional proteins which are functionally associated. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The highlighted SNPs could be suitable targets for future research on proteins, biological markers, and medical diagnosis.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Maria Aslam, Afia Muhammad Akram, Asma Tahir, Khansa Jamil Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/33 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000