Futuristic Biotechnology https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt <p><strong>Title of Journal: Futuristic Biotechnology</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: (E) 2959-0981, (P) 2959-0973</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Semiannual</strong></p> <p><strong>Publisher: Lahore Medical Research Center <sup>LLP</sup></strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></span></p> <p>Futuristic Biotechnology (FBT) publishes broad-spectrum publications with close connection to experimental activity in Biological and Biotechnology fields. FBT is intended for exploring the molecular mechanisms that support key biological processes in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biosciences, molecular biology, plant biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and bioinformatics. Furthermore, it also covers topics related to immunology, antibody production, protein purification studies, primer synthesis, DNA sequencing, production of transgenic animal models, insect resistant crop varieties and edible and ornamental plant varieties.</p> <p><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National): <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International): <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p><strong>Fee Waiver Policy</strong></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong>Submissions</strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></u></p> Lahore Medical Research Center en-US Futuristic Biotechnology 2959-0973 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></p> Microbial Biotechnology and Bioremediation https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/13 <p>Microbial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field that leverages the abilities of microorganisms for practical applications. From producing biofuels to removing pollutants, microorganisms play a crucial role in shaping our world. Bioremediation is one of the most promising applications of microbial biotechnology, using microorganisms to clean up contaminated sites and restore ecosystems. The impact of human activities has led to widespread pollution, and traditional methods of remediation are often expensive, time-consuming, and not environmentally friendly. Microbial biotechnology offers a sustainable and cost-effective alternative.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Bioremediation can be performed using indigenous microorganisms or by introducing specific strains of microorganisms that are capable of breaking down contaminants. These microorganisms use the pollutants as a source of energy and nutrients, transforming them into harmless substances. This process not only cleans up the site, but it also helps to restore the natural ecosystem and biodiversity. The field of microbial biotechnology has made significant progress in recent years, with advancements in molecular biology and genomics enabling a deeper understanding of microorganisms and their capabilities. The development of new bioremediation techniques has allowed for the efficient removal of a wide range of contaminants, including heavy metals, oil and other petroleum products, and toxic organic compounds. These techniques have proven to be effective in treating contaminated soil, groundwater, and surface water [1].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>However, the implementation of bioremediation techniques is not without its challenges. One of the biggest challenges is identifying the most effective strains of microorganisms for a specific contamination site. The environmental conditions, such as pH, temperature, and nutrient levels, can have a significant impact on the efficacy of bioremediation. Furthermore, the presence of multiple contaminants can complicate the process, requiring the use of multiple strains of microorganisms. Despite these challenges, the benefits of bioremediation, including sustainability and cost-effectiveness, make it a promising solution for cleaning up contaminated sites.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The impact of microbial biotechnology and bioremediation goes beyond just environmental remediation. By leveraging the abilities of microorganisms, we can also contribute to the development of new and innovative technologies. For example, biorefineries are being developed to produce biofuels, bioplastics, and other bioproducts using sustainable processes. This not only helps to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels, but it also helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Microbial biotechnology and bioremediation are critical fields that offer solutions to some of the biggest environmental challenges facing our world. With continued investment and research, we can develop and implement more effective and sustainable bioremediation techniques. These techniques will play a key role in cleaning up contaminated sites, restoring ecosystems, and promoting sustainable development. It is our hope that the benefits of microbial biotechnology and bioremediation will be recognized and supported by governments, organizations, and the public, allowing us to make a positive impact on our world.</p> Fridoon Jawad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 01 01 10.54393/fbt.v2i02.13 Clinical Implication of Hepatic Phosphatases in Hyperthyroidism https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/20 <p>Thyroid hormones significantly affect the proper growth, development and functioning of liver. It has been seen that the drugs indicated for thyroid abnormalities also cause troubles in liver function. <strong>Objective:</strong> To check the effect of thyroid abnormality on liver function. <strong>Methods:</strong> Patients were recruited from Center of Nuclear Medicine and examined for their thyroid status and liver functions. <strong>Results:</strong> The results obtained through biochemical tests for potential biomarkers were further explored through statistical analysis which showed the strong correlation between disturbed function of thyroid gland and liver working. Any variation in thyroid function brings change in liver functioning. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Therefore, while treating thyroid patients, combination therapy must be recommended to effectively treat the associated disorder and increasing the better social and psychological status of the patient. &nbsp;Furthermore, patients coming with thyroid dysfunction must also be examined for liver abnormalities so that culprit cause of this thyroid abnormality could be treated from the root if present.</p> Maria Fareed Siddiqui Muhammad Raza Muhammad Mohsin Aftab Copyright (c) 2022 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 02 06 10.54393/fbt.v2i02.20 Assessment of TNF-α Gene Expression in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Nephropathy https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/17 <p>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications, including nephropathy, are a significant public health concern worldwide. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the development and progression of chronic inflammatory diseases, including T2DM and diabetic nephropathy. <strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate of TNF-α gene expression in patients with T2DM and nephropathy compared to healthy individuals. <strong>Methods:</strong> The cross-sectional study conducted on 120 individuals divided into three groups: healthy individuals, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients without diabetic nephropathy, and T2DM patients with nephropathy. RNA was extracted and TNF-α gene expression was evaluated using PCR and statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed almost 4.2-fold induced expression of TNF-α in T2DM patients without nephropathy compared to the normal group. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study reports that in diabetic nephropathy patients, Gene expression of gene TNF-<em>a</em> shows increases in cases when compared with healthy subjects</p> Saima Sharif Samra Anees Muhammad Roman Shah Jahan Copyright (c) 2022 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 07 10 10.54393/fbt.v2i02.17 VEGF Genotype and Allele Frequency of Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic retinopathy in Lahore, Pakistan https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/18 <p>Diabetic retinopathy is characterized as basement membrane (BM) thickening, pericyte loss, endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, microaneurysms, microvascular infarcts and neovascularization in a patient with diabetic retinopathy. <strong>Objectives: </strong>To determine the VEGF genotype and allele frequency of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in Lahore, Pakistan. <strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 100 blood samples were taken including diabetes mellitus (50) and diabetic retinopathy patients (50). Diseased and control subjects were selected for blood sampling. Demographic and clinical characteristics was evaluated. The BMI, HbA1c and the blood pressure of both groups were also examined. The VEGF genotype and allele frequency of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy was done. The statistical analysis was done by chi-square test and SPSS to study significant differences in control and diabetic retinopathy subjects. <strong>Results: </strong>The normal estimation of DM group was 46.18 ± 1.23 years while of DR class was 52.86 ± 1.36 years. The mean value of BMI of DM group was 26.0±0.62 while of DR group was 26.57±0.70.</p> <p>DD genetic mutation was substantially higher in diabetic retinopathy bunch (p&lt;0.05) relative to the II gene mutation, the huge contrasts (p&lt;0.05) were seen in diabetic group. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study concluded that Vascular endothelial growth factor gene was detected in both group of diabetes. In retinopathy people with T2DM the substantial elevated VEGF DD genetic variation was seen relative to retinopathy people without diabetes.</p> Samra Anees Saima Shareef Muhammad Roman Shah Jahan Copyright (c) 2022 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 14 10.54393/fbt.v2i02.18 Seroprevalence of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Livestock, Pakistan https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/14 <p>Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) is among the deadly human pathogens which cause a highly lethal haemorrhagic fever. CCHFV, a high-priority zoonotic pathogen is distributed widely and is transmitted in a vertical transmission cycle through these animals. Humans get infected by an infected tick bite, contact with viremic livestock blood, and through nosocomial route. Several CCHFV outbreaks have been reported for the past 2 decades in Pakistan and the virus has emerged in previously non-endemic regions as well. It is important to screen animals for CCHFV through an efficient diagnostic assay to prevent the viral zoonotic spill over to humans. <strong>Objectives: </strong>To screen the presence of CCHFV in sera collected from cattle, goat, and sheep in various regions in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Sindh through a pre-established IgG ELISA assay. <strong>Methods: </strong>A recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP) of CCHFV was used to capture the anti CCFHV IgG antibodies in the animal sera. <strong>Results: </strong>Among 164 animals tested, 65% (103/164) showed the presence of IgG CCHFV antibodies. From the total 103 animals tested positive, 14.5 % (CI 0-28.2%) were cattle, 63.7% (CI 38.5-60.3%) were goats and 42% (CI 24.4-48.8%) were sheep. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>High seroprevalence of the CCHFV was expected from these areas as numerous cases of CCHFV have been reported previously. Since no commercial tests are available for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in animals, this IgG ELISA test can be used to screen the animals in areas at risk such as those that have the presence of permissive ticks</p> Maham Yamin Umer Farooq Muhammad Qasim Madiha Khalid Aneela Javed Copyright (c) 2021 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 15 18 10.54393/fbt.v2i02.14 Computer-Aided Drug Designing of Ocimum basilicum Compounds as Therapeutic Agents against RdRp of SARS-CoV2 https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/5 <p>The prevailing situation of the World is challenging due to COVID-19 pandemic that is caused by SARS-CoV2. <strong>Objectives: </strong>To combat with this emerging pandemic by reducing disease severity and infection, the need of hour is to develop an effective vaccine and antiviral candidates as therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV2. <strong>Methods: </strong>This study was developed for the identification of potential anti-viral agents, from <em>Ocimum basilicum </em>against RdRp of SARS-CoV2. In this concern, nevadensin, ursolic acid, β-Sesquiphellandren, apigenin, nerolidol, nonyl acetate and geranyl acetate were screened out of fifty-seven compounds from <em>Ocimum basilicum </em>based on their best docking scores. The docking results were also compared with already clinically used drugs (Remdesivir and Ribavirin) against the RdRp of SARS-CoV2. Molecular docking was performed using MOE software. The ADMET analysis and drug likeliness were also performed for all screened compounds by using admetSAR, pkCSM and SwissADME. <strong>Results: </strong>Cumulatively, the optimum binding energies of screened compounds indicated their potential for drug development against SARS-CoV2. It appears promising that nevadensin exhibited a good docking score and high binding affinity towards RdRp of SARS-CoV2. Therefore, it may represent the potential to inhibit COVID-19. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hence, <em>Ocimum basilicum </em>nutraceuticals could be effective therapeutic candidates for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.</p> Mehwish Shafiq Rashid Saif Laraib Ali Tuba Ahmad Iram Anjum Anood Sohail Copyright (c) 2021 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 19 23 10.54393/fbt.v2i02.5