Futuristic Biotechnology https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt <p><strong>Title of Journal: Futuristic Biotechnology</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: (E) 2959-0981, (P) 2959-0973</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Quarterly (w.e.f September Issue, 2023)</strong></p> <p><strong>Publisher: Lahore Medical Research Center <sup>LLP</sup></strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></span></p> <p>Futuristic Biotechnology (FBT) publishes broad-spectrum publications with close connection to experimental activity in Biological and Biotechnology fields. FBT is intended for exploring the molecular mechanisms that support key biological processes in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biosciences, molecular biology, plant biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and bioinformatics. Furthermore, it also covers topics related to immunology, antibody production, protein purification studies, primer synthesis, DNA sequencing, production of transgenic animal models, insect resistant crop varieties and edible and ornamental plant varieties.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version(Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong>Submissions</strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></u></p> Lahore Medical Research Center en-US Futuristic Biotechnology 2959-0973 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></p> Growth and Yield of Sunflower under the Integrated Farmyard Manure and Potassium Fertilization https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/67 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">The study was conducted during the autumn of 2022 Session at the Students' Experimental Farm Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW236130533 BCX0">Tandojam</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">, using a Randomized Complete Block Design. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Objective:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">To assess how varying levels of Farmyard Manure and potassium affect the growth and seed production of sunflowers. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">The study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> five different Farmyard Manure treatments and three potassium stages.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> The variety HO-1 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">underwent</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> the following treatments: T</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> = Control (0-ton </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Farmyard Manure</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">+ 0 kg ha</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">-1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> potash), T</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">2 </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">= 5-ton </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Farmyard Manure</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">+ 30 kg ha</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">-1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> potash, T</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">3 </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">= 5-ton </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Farmyard Manure</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">+ 60 kg ha</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">-1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> potash, T</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">4</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> = 5-ton </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Farmyard Manure</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">+ 80 kg ha</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">-1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> potash, T</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">5</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> = 5-ton </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Farmyard Manure</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">+ 120 kg ha</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">-1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> potash</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">The best results were found in T5 (5 tons of Farmyard Manure + 120 kg ha-1 Potash), which had the largest plant girth (11.2 cm), largest head diameter (48.5 cm), tallest plant (247.4 cm), highest number of seeds per head (1971.3), heaviest seed weight (69.5 g) per head, seed index (34 g), and maximum seed yield (2725.7 kg ha-1). T4 closely trailed, showing positive results (5 tons of farmyard manure plus 80 kg ha-1 potash). </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> In conclusion, the study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">demonstrates</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> that the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">optimal</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> combination for maximizing sunflower growth and yield is the application of 80 kg ha</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">-1</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0"> of potassium and 5 tons of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">Farmyard Manure</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW236130533 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW236130533 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Rabia Laghari Ghulam Mustafa Laghari Asif Ali Kaleri Danish Manzoor Muhammad Mithal Lund Muzamil Hussain Awan Zubair Ahmad Sheikh Marina Kanwal Soomro Muhammad Mustafa Soomro Saba Solangi Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 25 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.67 Population Dynamics of Copepods as Influenced by Heavy Metals in Khanki Headworks, Pakistan https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/74 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Copepods grow in diverse freshwater habitats, totaling around 2,814 species. As foremost zooplankton, they lead biomass and are pivotal in aquatic ecosystems. The ever-increasing issue of heavy metals contamination affects organisms differently. Copepods, with their broad geographic range, can be valuable bio </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">monitors</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> for metal growth.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">o evaluate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> the</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> effects of heavy metals and fish diversity on the population dynamics of copepods in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Khanki</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Headworks</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">, Pakistan</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">F</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">or the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">analysis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> of heavy metals m</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">onth wise water samples</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> (1000 ml)</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">from four</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">selected sites</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">collected for one year (February 2021 to January 2022</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Atomic Absorption </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Spectrophotometry</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">employed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> for the analysis of heavy metals</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Month wise</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">copepods </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">samples </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">were collected with planktonic net (mesh size: 37µm)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">In total, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">seven</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">species</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> and</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> four</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">genera</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">c</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">opepods were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">identified</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW38010854 BCX0">Mesocyclops</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">edax</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">was the most </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">dominant</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> copepod species.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> Three heavy metals </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">z</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">inc (Zn), </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">rsenic (As) and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">n</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">ickel (Ni) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">were estimated in following order of concentrations </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Zn&gt; Ni&gt; As</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Conclusions:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">Current investigation revealed that</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> heavy metals </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">generally govern</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> the population </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0">dynamics</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW38010854 BCX0"> of copepods.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW38010854 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Muhammad Ahsan Raza Nabila Roohi Husna Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 26 31 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.74 Synthesis and Characterization of Mercury Complex Derived from Trimesic Acid https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/57 <p>The effects of mercury complexes on human body and cells vary depending on the extent of exposure and their pharmacological form. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To characterize mercury complex and then investigate the effects on cellular interaction via cell death. <strong>Methods:</strong> The synthesis of the mercury complex was carried out, and its characterization was done by FTIR, elemental percentage and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The complex was analyzed through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by microscopy imaging its surface morphology and cellular interaction were also studied. <strong>Results:</strong> The presence of the mercury-complex results in cell death in concentration and time dependent manner. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The synthesized mercury-complex has the ability to harm cells.</p> Javed Hussain Shah Shahzad Sharif Rashid Rehman Anum Arooj Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 32 38 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.57 Comparison of Extraction Techniques for Pectin from Kinnow Peel by using Convectional, Sonication, and Thermo-Sonication Techniques https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/58 <p>Kinnow is a species of citrus family. Pectin has been declared as a safe substance. However, conventional methods are practiced in some industries for pectin extraction from citrus peel. Innovative techniques like ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), sonication, and thermos-sonication may play a vital role in increasing the yield of pectin from peels of citrus. <strong>Objective:</strong> To conduct a comparative analysis of Kinnow peel pectin extracted through conventional, Sonication, and Thermosonication techniques. <strong>Methods:</strong> For this purpose raw materials (Kinnow) purchased from the local market of Faisalabad, Kinnow peels were dried and made into fine powder. This fine powder is used further to extract pectin by conventional, sonication and thermos-sonication extraction methods. <strong>Results:</strong> Different qualitative analyses of pectin like solubility of dry pectin in cold and hot water, and solubility in cold and hot alkali, pH, pectin color, quantitative analysis of pectins like yield and equivalent weight, and methoxyl content. During pectin testing, thermos-sonication techniques proved their excellence. Among all treatments during analysis, Moreover, thermos-sonication was found to be the best extraction technique among all treatments. The yield is maximum (15.55%) through thermo-sonicated extracted samples. The highest value of equivalent weight (345±13.08) was seen in the thermos-sonication-treated sample. The upper limit (5.33±0.12) of methoxyl content was held by thermos-sonication-treated samples. Pectin’s capacity to bind sugar and spreading quality increases with increasing methoxyl content. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was concluded that the best extraction method of pectin is the thermos-sonication method for better qualitative and quantitative output.</p> Talha Sajid Farazia Hassan Muhammad Umair Khalid Muhammad Soban Mumtaz Muhammad Yousaf Quddoos Shahid Mahmood Nida Firdos Muhammad Siddique Raza Rida Batool Iqra Irshad Ayesha Rafique Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 39 43 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.58 Ameliorative Effects of Orange Juice on Sodium Fluoride Induced Gastro-Hepatic Toxicity in Mice https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/78 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">Floride </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">toxicity has been</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> under </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">discussion and investigations</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">when taken in excess</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">amounts.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">Floride leaching into the water bodies </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW183263573 BCX0">as a result of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> industrialization is a</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">common issue facing most of the developing</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">countries </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">like</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> Pakistan, India, Bangladesh etc. This leached fluoride </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW183263573 BCX0">has the ability to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> cause a myriad of disorders when incorporated in animal bodies.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">Objective</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">:</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">o find out the ameliorative effect of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">o</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">range juice against toxic effects of sodium fluoride influencing damaging effect on liver and stomach.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">The mice were divided in six groups. The control group was only Nestle’s water, while different </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">concentrations</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> of sodium fluoride (2.50µg/g, 5.00µg/g and 7.50µg/g body weight) were prepared and administered orally in mice for 30 days. Then all treated groups were supplied with fresh natural orange juice for next 30 days to test its ameliorative potential. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">The data revealed the significant reduction of body weight</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">(</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">&lt;0.001)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> stomach length,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">tomach diameter (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> &lt; 0.05) while hepato- somatic and gastro-somatic index increased (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> &lt; 0.05)</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">in treated groups as compared to control group after sodium fluoride administration. Morphological studies revealed different abnormalities in treated groups such as spots on the liver and stomach, swelling of stomach, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">constriction</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> of fundic and cardiac regions a</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">nd</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> lobes of liver.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> This </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">study clearly </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">revealed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> that sodium fluoride is potentially toxic to organs of albino mice, especially liver and stomach</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> and that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">orange juice </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">demonstrated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> ameliorative potential against the toxicity </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0">due to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW183263573 BCX0"> sodium fluoride. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW183263573 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> Ata ul Mustafa Fahid Azeem Azam Farhan Anjum Hamza Faseeh Rabia Bano Sana Kausar Attiq ur Rehman Maryam Latif Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 44 50 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.78 Computational Profile of Novel Natural Bioactive Inhibitors of NF-κB https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/55 <p>Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) represents a family of inducible transcription factors, which regulates a large array of genes involved in different processes of the immune and inflammatory responses. Deregulated NF-κB activation contributes to the pathogenic process of various diseases such as inflammation and cancer. NF-κB signaling in cancer cells is involved in cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, development of drug resistance and anti-apoptosis. <strong>Objective:</strong> To identify potent NF-κB and IκBα inhibitors using molecular docking study. <strong>Methods:</strong> Proteins and ligands were prepared from Pymol and AutoDock vina and results were visualized by using Discovery studio visualizer. <strong>Results:</strong> Natural bioactive compounds such as Brevilin A, Tagitinin E, Japonicone G and Hiyodorilactone A were targeted on NF-κB and IκBα. The docking score of the Brevilin A, Tagitinin E, Japonicone G and Hiyodorilactone A with NF-κB were -9.8Kcal/mol, -10.1Kcal/mol, -11.9Kcal/mol, and - 8.4Kcal/mol respectively. The docking score of the Brevilin A, Tagitinin E, Japonicone G and Hiyodorilactone A with IκBα were -7.1Kcal/mol, -7.0Kcal/mol, -8.8Kcal/mol and -6.8Kcal/mol respectively. Control group (JSH-23 synthetic inhibitor) showed -6.5Kcal/mol and -5.5Kcal/mol with NF-κB and IκBα respectively. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study reflects that Brevilin A, Tagitinin E, Japonicone G and Hiyodorilactone A show promising results as a crucial drug target in NF-κB signaling cascade. However, to validate the inhibitory activity of these ligands further <em>in-vitro</em> analysis are suggested to develop novel anti-inflammatory/anti-cancer drugs.</p> Muhammad Ishaq Muhammad Mansha Muhammad Faisal Maqbool Muhammad Khan Azeem Saeed Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 51 58 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.55 An Analysis of Bibliometric Research on Sumatriptan (Imitrex, Tosymra) Linked to Migraine Relief https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/70 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">Episodic headaches are a common neurovascular disorder called migraine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0"> characterized by a throbbing pain that is typically felt on one side of the brain, however it can occasionally affect both sides. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">However, no visual bibliometric analysis has been conducted on the effects of sumatriptan on migraine over the past 10 years. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0"> To</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">identify</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0"> the </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW187308264 BCX0">current status</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0"> and emerging trends of the global use of sumatriptan associated with the relief of migraine from 2011 to 2022. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">Approximately 3154 publications (500 from PubMed and 2654 from dimensions) in CSV format were exported from PubMed and dimensions to VOS viewer. The keywords applied for searching were “sumatriptan” and “sumatriptan in migraine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">”.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">The results of bibliometric analysis of the occurrence of keywords by VOS viewer revealed the top four most occurring keywords as “effect</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">”,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0"> “relief</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">”,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0"> “model</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">”,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0"> and “mechanism</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">”.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0"> The bibliometric analysis for the graphical distribution of a maximum number of articles by countries in 2011-2022 reveals Germany, the US, and Australia as the top three countries. The analysis for a maximum number of publications by organizations in 2011-2022 showed the top three organizations with a maximum number of articles are “Headache Core Center, Springfield, USA”, “Montefiore Medical Center, USA”, and “Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University”. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187308264 BCX0">The compiled data of this exploration will make it easier for other academic research work to find authentic and fruitful results for complex future studies.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW187308264 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Muhammad Umar Muhammad Osama Malik Shahid Iqbal Aqsa Qurban Aqsa Sadiq Syeda Safina Zanib Maham Taimoor Tarar Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 59 65 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.70 From Depths to Discoveries: Unraveling the Potential of Marine Biotechnology https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/73 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">With the oceans covering over 70% of our world, there is a lot of unrealized potential there. There is a wealth of marine life in these depths that presents a variety of opportunities for biotechnology. The most recent developments in marine biotechnology are helping us discover the mysteries of nature and are revolutionizing the fields of industry, sustainability, and healthcare to meet the challenges of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">21</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW168766199 BCX0" data-fontsize="12">st</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> century. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">Deep sea exploration has revealed a secret world full of many life forms, each of which may </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">contain</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> one or more special bioactive chemicals</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> Microalgae such as </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">Chlorella</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> and </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">Spirulina</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> offer a rich repository of bioactive compounds, from anti-inflammatory agents to proteins, enriching pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements. Actinobacteria, notably </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">Streptomyces</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">, contribute significantly to antibiotic compounds critical in combating infections</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> [1]</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> M</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">arine-based food products are enhanced by fatty acids from marine sources, especially omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which are found in fish and algae and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">provide</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> special health benefits not available in land-based sources.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">Furthermore, because of their extraordinary qualities and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">capacity</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> to withstand harsh environments, enzymes derived from marine creatures are indispensable in the food processing industry.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">While corals, sponges, and invertebrates boast bioactive substances, their practical use in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">industry and health care</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> faces challenges due to sustainability concerns</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> [2]</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">.</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">Although accessing deep waters can be challenging, innovative technology such as remotely operated vehicles</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">facilitates</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> the collecting of samples. The complexity of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">analyzing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">categorizing</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> marine bacteria affects the development of new drugs. Weekly, thousands of possible bioactive compounds are tested using </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW168766199 BCX0">high-throughput</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> approaches to overcome the limitations of traditional screening. Novel strategies that combine bioinformatics and enhanced screening work well to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">identify</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> bioactive compounds obtained from marine sources. Drug development </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">appears to be</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> promising as genomics and metagenomics reveal genetic </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">capacities</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> and find bioactive components from previously uncultivable microbes</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> [3]</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">The fusion of biology, technology, and the boundless oceans sparks unparalleled opportunities. It urges collaboration among researchers, policymakers, and industries to explore the sea's potential responsibly. Exploring the ocean's depths reveals scientific marvels but also </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0">provides</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW168766199 BCX0"> the answer to a healthier and more sustainable future for coming generations.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW168766199 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}">&nbsp;</span></p> Riffat Mehboob Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 01 01 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.73 Effects of Microplastics on Living Organisms and their Trophic Transfer: An Ecotoxicological Review https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/77 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">Plastic is</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0"> used by individuals </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">within many different fields, including the automotive, packaging, cosmetics, textile</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0"> and apparel, agricultural </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">f</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">isheries sector </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">and industries</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">Nevertheless</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">, it has become a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">hazard to our ecosystem </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">due to its </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">extended</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0"> degradation</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0"> and decadences</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0"> in nature</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">, unceasing rise in</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">manufacture</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0"> and consumption with the increasing human population</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">. Microplastics (MPs) can enter in both soil and aquatic environments through a variety of channels, including surface runoff, storm water runoff, river flow, and wastewater discharge.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">As a possible hazard to aquatic life, the existence and consumption of MPs </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">has</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0"> drawn significant attention from throughout the world</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">These tiny plastic particles absorb various substances and emit harmful additives, serving as sinks for dangerous substances and enhancing their bioavailability, toxicity, and movement. Additionally, the trophic transfer or bioaccumulation of MPs in a variety of aquatic creatures poses a significant concern. MPs have the potential to seriously harm aquatic life, including reduced eating efficiency, physical side effects, impaired gill function, oxidative stress, neurological damage, suppression of immunity</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW62417559 BCX0">and developmental disruption.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW62417559 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Farhan Anjum Azeem Azam Hamza Faseeh Rabia Bano Maryam Latif Ata ul Mustafa Fahid Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 02 11 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.77 Ion Exchange Resins and their Applications in Water Treatment and Pollutants Removal from Environment: A Review https://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/51 <p><span data-contrast="auto">Ion exchange resin is a porous polymer with a high molecular weight. It has a few groups that can be exchanged into ions in the solution it comes into contact with. Ion exchange resins are available in different types and are widely employed in wastewater treatment. </span><span data-contrast="none">It removes unwanted ions from waste water, because it can exchange unwanted ions with its functional group</span><span data-contrast="auto">. </span><span data-contrast="none">Until now, ions exchange mainly employed for the removal of different compounds from water, including dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, copper, N-nitrosodimethylamine, fluoride, Nickel, boron, sulfamethazine, trihalomethanes (THMs) etc. In industry, various techniques are available for condensate water treatment, including flotation, membrane, sedimentation, coagulation, precipitation, chemical adsorption, filtration, catalytic oxidation, and electrochemical techniques.</span> <span data-contrast="none">But existing techniques or processes are not feasible for water treatment in a confined place due to few advantages, including less efficiency in purification, being expensive, maintenance challenges, and high energy requirements. In contrast, ion exchange resins benefit from high separation selectivity, simple handling, and reusable resin. Few resins are too much costly, but being they are reusable, it makes them sustainable and cost-effective. Significant research is being conducted worldwide to uncover the potential effects of ion exchange resins. This review discussed their use in environmental cleanup, water treatment, and operational feasibility with multiple factors.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Arslan Ali Maimona Sadia Muhammad Azeem Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmad Muhammad Umar Zain Ul Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 12 19 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.51