Rhizosphere: An Ideal Site for PGPR Screening

Rhizosphere: An Ideal Site for PGPR Screening


  • Ambreen Ahmed Institute of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Aqsa Tariq Institute of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan




Rhizosphere, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, PGPR


Rhizosphere is the thin layer of soil surrounding plant roots and play important role in plant-bacterial interactions. This rhizospheric region around plant roots is an area rich in plant growth promoting bacteria. These plant-associated bacteria usually promote plant growth through various direct or indirect mechanisms including phosphorous solubilization, phytohormone production, nitrogen fixation, iron sequestration via siderophores and production of extracellular polymeric substances etc. PGPR modify root system of plants by the production of various phytohormones which facilitate the uptake of nutrients from soil more efficiently resulting in enhanced plant growth. Objective: To study the growth conditions of bacterial isolates. Methods:  In the current study, rhizobacterial isolates have been isolated from indigenous environment and characterized macroscopically, microscopically, and biochemically. These isolates have been biochemically identified using Bergey’s Manual of systematic bacteriology and using ABIS 7 online software and evaluated for their various growth promoting attributes. Results: AS2 was identified as Bacillus sp., while AS3 and AS4 were identified as Pseudomonas sp. All three strains exhibited auxin production, nitrogen fixation, and HCN production capabilities. However, AS4 lacked ammonification and zinc solubilization potential, and AS3 lacked ACC deaminase activity. Conclusions: It is concluded that these bacterial isolates have ability to promote plant growth. These bacterial isolates can be further used for plant stimulating agents for sustainable agriculture practices.


Ahmed A and Hasnain S. Auxin-producing Bacillus sp.: Auxin quantification and effect on the growth of Solanum tuberosum. Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2010 Jan; 82(1): 313-9. doi: 10.1351/PAC-CON-09-02-06.

Olanrewaju OS, Glick BR, Babalola OO. Mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting bacteria. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2017 Nov; 33: 1-6. doi: 10.1007/s11274-017-2364-9

Shameer S and Prasad TN. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable agricultural practices with special reference to biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant Growth Regulation. 2018 Apr; 84:603-15. doi: 10.1007/s10725-017-0365-1.

Santoyo G, Moreno-Hagelsieb G, del Carmen Orozco-Mosqueda M, Glick BR. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes. Microbiological Research. 2016 Feb; 183: 92-9. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2015.11.008.

Susilowati A, Puspita AA, Yunus A. Drought resistant of bacteria producing exopolysaccharide and IAA in rhizosphere of soybean plant (Glycine max) in Wonogiri Regency Central Java Indonesia. InIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2018 Mar: 142(1): 012058. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/142/1/012058.

Parray JA, Jan S, Kamili AN, Qadri RA, Egamberdieva D, Ahmad P. Current perspectives on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2016 Sep; 35: 877-902. doi: 10.1007/s00344-016-9583-4.

Keswani C, Prakash O, Bharti N, Vílchez JI, Sansinenea E, Lally RD, et al. Re-addressing the biosafety issues of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Science of the Total Environment. 2019 Nov; 690: 841-52. doi: j.scitotenv.2019.07.046.

Ahmed A. How Chromium-Resistant Bacteria Can Improve Corn Growth in Chromium-Contaminated Growing Medium. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2016 Nov; 25(6). doi: 10.15244/pjoes/63334.

Cappuccino JG and Sherman N. Serial dilution agar plating procedure to quantitate viable cells. Microbiology: a laboratory manual, 3rd edn. The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co., Inc, Bedwood. 1992: 77-82.

Iqbal M, Naveed M, Sanaullah M, Brtnicky M, Hussain MI, Kucerik J et al. Plant microbe mediated enhancement in growth and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.) plant through auxin production and increased nutrient acquisition. Journal of Soils and Sediments. 2023 Mar; 23(3): 1233-49. doi: 10.1007/s11368-022-03386-7.

Tariq A and Ahmed A. Bacterial Symbiotic Signaling in Modulating Plant-Rhizobacterial Interactions. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.109915.

Li Z, Chang S, Lin L, Li Y, An Q. A colorimetric assay of 1‐aminocyclopropane‐1‐carboxylate (ACC) based on ninhydrin reaction for rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2011 Aug; 53(2): 178-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03088.x.

Jett BD, Hatter KL, Huycke MM, Gilmore MS. Simplified agar plate method for quantifying viable bacteria. Biotechniques. 1997 Oct; 23(4): 648-50.

Marques AP, Pires C, Moreira H, Rangel AO, Castro PM. Assessment of the plant growth promotion abilities of six bacterial isolates using Zea mays as indicator plant. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2010 Aug; 42(8): 1229-35. doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.04.014.

Goswami D, Parmar S, Vaghela H, Dhandhukia P, Thakker JN. Describing Paenibacillus mucilaginosus strain N3 as an efficient plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2015 Dec; 1(1): 1000714. doi: 10.1080/23311932.2014.1000714.

Khanghahi MY, Ricciuti P, Allegretta I, Terzano R, Crecchio C. S olubilization of insoluble zinc compounds by zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) and optimization of their growth conditions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018 Sep; 25: 25862-8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-2638-2.

Grover M, Bodhankar S, Sharma A, Sharma P, Singh J, Nain L. PGPR mediated alterations in root traits: way toward sustainable crop production. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021 Jan; 4: 618230. doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2020.618230.

Bhat MA, Mishra AK, Jan S, Bhat MA, Kamal MA, Rahman S, et al. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in plant health: A perspective study of the underground interaction. Plants. 2023 Jan; 12(3): 629. doi: 10.3390/plants12030629.

Mercado-Blanco J. Life of microbes inside the plant. InPrinciples of Plant-Microbe Interactions: Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture. Cham: Springer International Publishing. 2014 Dec: 25-32. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-08575-3_5.

Wu M, Hu X, Zhang Q, Xue D, Zhao Y. Growth environment optimization for inducing bacterial mineralization and its application in concrete healing. Construction and Building Materials. 2019 Jun; 209:631-43. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.181.

Moon YS and Ali S. Isolation and identification of multi-trait plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria from coastal sand dune plant species of Pohang beach. Folia Microbiologica. 2022 Jun; 67(3): 523-33. doi: 10.1007/s12223-022-00959-4.

Jalal A, da Silva Oliveira CE, Galindo FS, Rosa PA, Gato IM, de Lima BH, et al. Regulatory Mechanisms of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and Plant Nutrition against Abiotic Stresses in Brassicaceae Family. Life. 2023 Jan; 13(1): 211. doi: 10.3390/life13010211.

Iqbal M, Naveed M, Sanaullah M, Brtnicky M, Hussain MI, Kucerik J, et al. Plant microbe mediated enhancement in growth and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.) plant through auxin production and increased nutrient acquisition. Journal of Soils and Sediments. 2023 Mar; 23(3): 1233-49. doi: 10.1007/s11368-022-03386-7.

Chandarana KA and Amaresan N. Predation pressure regulates plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes of bacterial species. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2023 Apr; 134(4): lxad083. doi: 10.1093/jambio/lxad083.

Singh SK, Singh PP, Gupta A, Singh AK, Keshri J. Tolerance of heavy metal toxicity using PGPR strains of Pseudomonas species. InPGPR amelioration in sustainable agriculture 2019 Jan; 239-52. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815879-1.00012-4.

Wagi S, Ahmed A. Bacillus spp.: potent microfactories of bacterial IAA. PeerJ. 2019 Jul ; 7: e7258. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7258.

Al-Ali A, Deravel J, Krier F, Béchet M, Ongena M, Jacques P. Biofilm formation is determinant in tomato rhizosphere colonization by Bacillus velezensis FZB42. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018 Oct; 25: 29910-20. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0469-1.

Pandey S, Ghosh PK, Ghosh S, De TK, Maiti TK. Role of heavy metal resistant Ochrobactrum sp. and Bacillus spp. strains in bioremediation of a rice cultivar and their PGPR like activities. Journal of Microbiology. 2013 Feb; 51: 11-7. doi: 10.1007/s12275-013-2330-7.

Wani PA, Zainab IO, Wasiu IA, Jamiu KO. Chromium (VI) reduction by Streptococcus species isolated from the industrial area of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Microbiology. 2015 Feb; 10(2): 66. doi: 10.3923/jm.2015.66.75.



DOI: 10.54393/fbt.v3i01.32
Published: 2023-06-30

How to Cite

Ahmed, A., & Tariq, A. (2023). Rhizosphere: An Ideal Site for PGPR Screening: Rhizosphere: An Ideal Site for PGPR Screening. Futuristic Biotechnology, 3(01), 07–11. https://doi.org/10.54393/fbt.v3i01.32



Orginal Articles