Futuristic Biotechnology http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt <p><strong>Title of Journal: Futuristic Biotechnology</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: (E) 2959-0981, (P) 2959-0973</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Quarterly (w.e.f September Issue, 2023)</strong></p> <p><strong>Publisher: Lahore Medical Research Center <sup>LLP</sup></strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></span></p> <p>Futuristic Biotechnology (FBT) publishes broad-spectrum publications with close connection to experimental activity in Biological and Biotechnology fields. FBT is intended for exploring the molecular mechanisms that support key biological processes in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biosciences, molecular biology, plant biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and bioinformatics. Furthermore, it also covers topics related to immunology, antibody production, protein purification studies, primer synthesis, DNA sequencing, production of transgenic animal models, insect resistant crop varieties and edible and ornamental plant varieties.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version(Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong>Submissions</strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></u></p> Lahore Medical Research Center en-US Futuristic Biotechnology 2959-0973 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></p> A review on Diversity, Mechanism of Action and Evolutionary Significance of Antimicrobial Peptides http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/99 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> evolutionarily </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">main</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">peptides </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">that </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">widely exist in rich diversity across nature</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> and play</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">significant role in </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">innate immunity of various taxa from invertebrates to vertebrates</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">. T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">hey are equally targeted as </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">newest discovered antibiotics against various prokaryotes</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> including bacteria, viruses, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">fungi,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> and parasites. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">AMPs </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">show</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> broad</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">spectrum potential with high efficacy and low toxicity via </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">in vivo</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> studies. Undou</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">bt</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">ed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">l</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">y, this also confers their specific mechanism of action</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> (MOA)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> and unique but distinct structures. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">Already</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">,</span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW98026634 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">many studies have reported that AMPs </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">possess</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> diverse </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">MOA</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> against various pathogenic microbes.</span></span> <span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW98026634 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">AMPs also encourage the cells to enhance wound healing, programmed cell death, angiogenesis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> and produce chemokines.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">However, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">associated risk is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">evolution of resistance to AMPs could lead to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">possible danger</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> to inherent immunity. From </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">an </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">evolutionary perspective, they are usually considered </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">nonspecific</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> with redundant function</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">s</span> <span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW98026634 BCX0">due to the fact that</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> they are easily duplicated and produce pseudogenes</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> thus showing less evolution at </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">primary amino acid level.</span> </span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW98026634 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">However, the microbial resistance risk against conventional antibiotics can be minimized by using AMPs </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">efficiently</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> and sustainably</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">U</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">nderstand</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">ing</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">nature and evolution of AMPs</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> will be beneficial as well</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> The current review focus</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">ed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> on antimicrobial peptides</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">'</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> diversity,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> history,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">MOA</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW98026634 BCX0"> and evolutionary significance. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW98026634 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Noor Muhammad Waiza Ansar Arif Ullah Iram Liaqat Zahid Nazir Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 02 09 10.54393/fbt.v4i02``.99 Assessing the Impact of Xenobiotic (Bisphenol A) on Blood Physiology and Biochemical Alterations Using Labeo Rohita Fish as a Model Organism http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/122 <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging pollutant that is extensively used in the manufacturing of various industrial products and is associated with adverse effects on both human and wildlife health. <strong>Objective:</strong> Present study aimed to evaluate the effects of bisphenol A on hematobiochemical biomarkers in freshwater Labeo rohita. <strong>Methods:</strong> For the purpose of this investigation, healthy fish were divided into four groups (A–D). Group A was treated as a BPA-free control group, while Group B, Group C, and Group D were exposed to various doses of BPA such as 400, 800, and 1600 µg/L, respectively for 21 days. <strong>Results:</strong> BPA-exposed fish showed different physical and behavioral abnormalities in dose-dependent ways. Results indicated significant increase in the concentrations of various hematobiochemical parameters, such as WBCs, MCHC, RDW, RDW-SD, platelets, neutrophils, triglycerides, cholesterol, ALT, AST, blood glucose, urea, T<sub>3</sub>, TSH and creatinine, while HGB, RBCs, HCT, MCV, MCH, PDW, lymphocytes, HDL, LDL, VLDL, total protein, globulin, albumin and T<sub>4</sub> concentrations were decreased. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The current study concluded that bisphenol A causes deleterious effects by disrupting physiological and hematobiochemical parameters alteration in exposed fish.</p> Shabbir Ahmad Hasnain Akmal Khurram Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 10 18 10.54393/fbt.v4i02.122 Development and Validation of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) Field Assay for the Detection of Brucella abortus http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/119 <p>Currently, a number of techniques are available for detection of <em>Brucella abortus</em> (<em>B. abortus)</em> but these techniques are costly and specialized equipment are needed. Therefore, the development of a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and cost effective technique for identification of <em>Brucella</em> species is of high priority. <strong>Objective</strong><strong>: </strong>The current research study was designed to detect <em>Brucella</em> species more rapidly. The current study area was conducted in district Lodhran, Punjab, Pakistan. <strong>Methods: </strong>A total 100 blood samples (50 cattle and 50 buffaloes) were collected. Serum samples were screened against <em>B. abortus</em> antibodies using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT). The specific gene was designed by using NCBI website and whole genome of <em>Brucella</em> species. The primers were designed from Gene accession number 20404. Following primers were designed F3, B3, FIP, BIP, LF, LB, B4, and B5. The LAMP technique for BSCP31 gene was developed by using many concentrations of components and conditions. <strong>Results: </strong>The development and validation of LAMP assay for detection of <em>B. abortus </em>from bovine blood in the present study proved helpful in early detection of said pathogen in animal and humans. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study will be helpful in prevention and control of animal and human brucellosis in Pakistan.</p> Muhammad Jamil Shehzad Ali Ali Hasan Yassar Abbas Muhammad Ahsan Raza Andleeb Aslam Ali Hasan Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 19 24 10.54393/fbt.v4i02.119 Molecular Docking-Aided Identification of Natural Bioactive Molecules as Potential Cancer Cell Proliferation Inhibitors http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/105 <p>Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Uncontrolled proliferation of cells is a hallmark of cancer development and progression. Ki-67 (a marker of proliferation Kiel-67) and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) are two major proliferations, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as these are over expressed in cancerous cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Ki-67 and PCNA could effectively inhibit the growth of cancer cells. <strong>Objective:</strong> To identify Sesquiterpene Lactones (SLs) as potential inhibitors of Ki-67 and PCNA to reduce cancer burden. <strong>Methods: </strong>The inhibitory potential of SLs, namely sulfocostunolide A, sulfocostunolide B, ilicol, eucalyptone, and ascleposide E, were investigated using Molecular Docking (MD) analysis. MD analysis and visualization of ligand-protein complexes were performed using softwares such as MGL tools, BIOVIA Discovery Studio visualizer and LigPlot plus. Additionally, drug likeness and pharmacokinetic properties of SLs were assessed via pkCSM and ADMET analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>Results showed that<strong> e</strong>ucalyptone with binding energy of -8.1 kcal/mol with Ki-67 while sulfocostunolide B with -6.4 kcal/mol binding energy with PCNA are the most potent proliferative inhibitors of Ki-67 and PCNA. ADMET properties, MD studies and toxicity prediction shows that current investigated ligands bind effectively with Ki-67 and PCNA without showing any toxicity. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Current study concludes that eucalyptone with Ki-67 and sulfocostunolide B with PCNA made stable complexes and can be considered as novel inhibitors. In addition to that, these suggested ligands have also shown effective drug likeness and ADMET profile. Further, <em>in-vitro</em> and <em>in-vivo</em> studies are required to validate these findings.</p> Muhammad Khan Iqra Hassan sameena Gul Aqsa Zaman Erum Zafar Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 25 30 10.54393/fbt.v4i02.105 Advancing Diagnostic Capabilities through Organ-on-a-Chip Technology http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/126 <p>In the recent years, the field of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has made substantial progress and has transformed the landscape of diagnostic applications. These miniaturized and integrated microfluidic devices have potentially revolutionized medical diagnostics by providing rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis of various biomarkers and analytes. One of the key advancements in this domain is the integration of cellular constructs within micro-engineered platforms. It has enabled to recapitulate the physiological and pathological conditions of complex tissues and organs. </p> <p>This ‘Organ-on-a-Chip’ technology holds immense promise for point-of-care diagnostics. These microfluidic devices offer unprecedented insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions. From mimicking the blood-brain barrier for drug screening to representing the properties of vital organs like the liver, heart, and lungs, organ-on-a-chip systems can revolutionize diagnostic paradigms.</p> <p>Not only has this technology enhanced the diagnostic accuracy, it is also revolutionizing multiplexing and high-throughput screening. These micro-engineered constructs provide a versatile platform for drug development and toxicology studies, and enable researchers to evaluate multiple parameters simultaneously, which has accelerated the pace of discovery and innovation. In additions, these systems are potentially streamlining the sample preparation and analysis as well. Owing to their miniaturized nature, the organ-on-a-chip devices allow for the use of smaller sample and reagent volumes, leading to more efficient and cost-effective analyses.</p> <p>Despite the impressive strides made in organ-on-a-chip technology, there are still challenges need to be addressed. Among these hurdles lie standardization, scalability, and regulatory considerations that must be overcome to fully realize the potential of these micro-engineered platforms. However, continued innovation and collaboration can totally alter the future of diagnostic applications. Organ-on-a-chip technology holds the promise of revolutionizing medical diagnostics, offering rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective analysis of biomarkers and analytes. The potential for organ-on-a-chip technology to transform healthcare delivery and improve patient outcomes is limitless</p> Muhammad Akram Tariq Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-06-30 2024-06-30 01 01 10.54393/fbt.v4i02.126