Futuristic Biotechnology http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt <p><strong>Title of Journal: Futuristic Biotechnology</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: (E) 2959-0981, (P) 2959-0973</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Quarterly (w.e.f September Issue, 2023)</strong></p> <p><strong>Publisher: Lahore Medical Research Center <sup>LLP</sup></strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></span></p> <p>Futuristic Biotechnology (FBT) publishes broad-spectrum publications with close connection to experimental activity in Biological and Biotechnology fields. FBT is intended for exploring the molecular mechanisms that support key biological processes in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biosciences, molecular biology, plant biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and bioinformatics. Furthermore, it also covers topics related to immunology, antibody production, protein purification studies, primer synthesis, DNA sequencing, production of transgenic animal models, insect resistant crop varieties and edible and ornamental plant varieties.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version: Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy: Rs 2500/-</p> <p><strong>Submissions</strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></u></p> Lahore Medical Research Center en-US Futuristic Biotechnology 2959-0973 <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></p> Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Biochemical Hematological Parameters and Liver Histopathology of Rabbit http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/43 <p>Zinc oxide nanoparticles have broad spectrum utilization in the nano-industry because of their distinct characteristics. Increased human exposure to nanoparticles has been observed through various products like dyes, additives, ceramics, beauty products rubber etc. <strong>Objectives:</strong> This study was carried out to evaluate the ZnO nanoparticle's toxic effects on hematological and biochemical parameters in lower and higher doses in a rabbit model. <strong>Methods:</strong> Thirty male rabbits were used and ten rabbits were assorted in each group. Groups included control and experimental group 1 (low dose group 50mg/kg) &amp; and group 2 (high dose group 75 mg/kg). The oral administration of ZnO nanoparticles was given for 20 days. The parameters included body weight, blood glucose level, serum level of aspartate transaminase (AST), serum level of alanine transaminase (ALT), serum albumin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. The parameters were measured on the 1st, 10th and 20th day of the experiment. <strong>Results:</strong> Nanoparticle administration resulted in a non-significant decrease in body weight and blood glucose level. Serum level aspartate transaminase in experimental group 2 was significantly increased. Triglycerides had shown a non-significant increase in experimental group 2. Non-significant decrease was observed in red blood cells and platelet count of both the experimental groups. Histopathological studies revealed damaged liver parenchyma and hepatocyte degeneration in the high-dose group. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> ZnO nanoparticle administration resulted in damage to liver histopathology. Its toxicity resulted in increased levels of triglycerides, AST and ALT due to liver damage.</p> Farah Ashfaq Sara Hayee Fatima Afzal Sadia Iqbal Aqsa Azmat Sana Ehsan Habiba Ashraf Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 19 24 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.43 In-silico Prediction of Azadirachta indica Compounds as Potential Therapeutic Inhibitor of Lysyl Oxidase to Suppress Canine Mammary Tumor Proliferation http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/42 <p>Canine mammary tumor (CMT) is one of the leading causes of death in female dogs, mainly due to the unavailability/expensive treatment, adverse and untargeted nature of the contemporary therapeutics. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To discover a biological mediator from the <em>Azadirachta indica </em>extracts by targeting Lysyl Oxidase (LOX), which is one of the enzymes responsible for accelerating the development of tumors and altering cellular microenvironment in mammals is considered to be suitable targets for anti-cancerous drugs.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Current study utilized computer-aided drug designing (CADD) to investigate 33 phytocompounds derived from this plant to check their potential inhibition properties against LOX protein. The phytochemicals were docked onto the protein and the ligands with the lowest binding energies were evaluated over the several parameters using PyRx software. Molecular dynamic simulation was also performed to further investigate the stability and conformational changes of the resultant ligand-protein complex by analyzing RMSD &amp; RMSF values, H-bond graphs and Heat maps through VMD/NAMD softwares. <strong>Results:</strong> The results revealed that Azadirachtin to be the most pertinent agent in LOX inhibition with a docking score of -12.6 kcal/mol and showed promising in-silico stability as well. Drug likeliness potential was further assessed based on Lipinski’s rule of five which reflect the safer nature of this drug agent. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Moreover, wet-lab in-vitro experiments followed by clinical trials are still needed to attest the validity of this virtually piloted phytocompound against LOX protein for CMT cure. </p> Mehroz Farhan Rashid Saif Iram Anjum Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 25 32 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.42 Exploring the Confluence of In-Ovo Mineral Supplementation and Hatching Attributes in Broiler Chick Progeny: A Symphony of Nutritional Enrichment and Broiler Chicks Development http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/64 <p>Embryonic&nbsp;nutrition is a key factor that influences broiler progeny performance with long-lasting nutritional adequacies or insufficiencies in the developmental phase. <strong>Objective: </strong>To explores the effects of in-ovo mineral supplementation or day in-ovo feeding on the hatching attributes and chick quality in broiler breeders. <strong>Methods:</strong> About 1400 hatching eggs of broiler breeders were selected, categorized into seven experimental groups: one control group, three macro mineral (P, Mg, and Ca) groups, and three micro-mineral (Zn, Mn, and Cu) groups. During the 12<sup>th</sup> and 18<sup>th</sup> day of incubation, eggs received in-ovo injections of their respective mineral (5% of the total mineral content in a 50g egg) solutions, prepared by dissolving the corresponding salts in deionized water. Post-injection, eggs were placed in the setter, and upon completion of incubation, hatching trays were removed to evaluate hatchability performance and chick quality parameters for each group. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that Zn, Ca, and Mg-supplemented eggs demonstrated the highest (P&lt;0.05) hatchability rates for settable and fertile eggs at day 12 of in-ovo feeding. The chick weight, hatch window, and hatchling size were significantly influenced (P&lt;0.05) by in-ovo feeding and the day of in-ovo feeding. However, no effect of in-ovo mineral feeding and day of in ovo feeding was observed on chick quality (chick grades, navel area, retracted yolk, and membrane score) and post-hatch chick activities (activity, down-appearance, vitality, eye score, and gait score). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> In conclusion, Zn, Ca, and Mg in ovo feeding improve the hatchability traits when administered at day 12 of incubation.</p> Imran Ahmed Nasir Rajput Imdad Hussain Laghari Rameez Raja Kaleri Shazia Shamas Zulfiqar Ahmed Farooque Ahmed Khushk Nasir Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 33 40 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.64 Mixotrophic Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris on Banana Waste for Biodiesel Production http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/44 <p>Environmentally friendly biofuels are currently produced in large quantities using algal lipids. <strong>Objective:</strong> To perform mixotrophic cultivation of <em>Chlorella vulgaris</em> on Banana Waste for Biodiesel Production. <strong>Methods:</strong> Banana waste was treated with acid/alkaline, ground, and sun dried. The resultant hydrolysate was used into studies comparing photoautotrophic and mixotrophic conditions in microalgae culture. When biomass productivity and lipid content were measured. For mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated, and saturated forms, the lipid content differed. The research used analytical methods for fatty acid methyl ester analysis, such as GC-MS. <strong>Results:</strong> Mixotrophic cultivation exhibited a much higher biomass productivity (135 mg L-1 d-1) than photoautotrophic cultivation (115 mg L-1 d-1). Additionally, mixotrophically raised biomass had a much larger (w/w) lipid content (45%) than photo-autotrophically raised biomass (30 %). Higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acids) was shown by Lipidome. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> High-quality biofuel might be made possible by the regular availability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (64 mg g-1 of dry biomass) in the lipid contents of mixotrophically produced algal biomass</p> Rabia Bano Azeem Azam Farhan Anjum Ata Ul Mustafa Fahid Hamza Faseeh Aqsa Riaz Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 41 45 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.44 Association Analysis of LCORL Genetic Variant (rs657074013) with Wither-Height in Pakistani Goats http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/46 <p>The goat stands as one of the most valued and economically efficient domestic animals, contributing significantly to human welfare through the provision of meat, milk, fiber, skin, and manure. Notably, the initial two production traits are contingent upon the physical attributes of the animals, exemplified by characteristics such as large body size and skeletal frame. Earlier (GWA) studies, employing high-density arrays, have revealed a noteworthy association of various variants located at the boundaries of <em>NACPG</em> and <em>LCORL</em> genes across diverse livestock species. <strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate the genetic variability/association of rs657074013A&gt;AT variant of <em>LCORL</em> gene within diverse goats from Pakistan. <strong>Methods: </strong>ARMS-PCR genotyping technique was used where, a total of 51 goats belongs to diverse breeds were screened with allele-specific set of primers. <strong>Results:</strong> Current study showed that 27% sampled population is homozygous wild-type (A/A), 24% is homozygous-mutant (AT/AT) and 49% is heterozygous (A/AT) with a significant genetic association <strong>X<sup>2</sup> p- value = 9.60 x 10<sup>-5 </sup></strong><sup> </sup>using PLINK. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium revealed that overall sampled population obeys the principle with <strong>X<sup>2</sup> (2, N=51) = 0.046, p = 0.9730</strong>. Furthermore, alternative allele frequencies (AAF) of 0.68 and 0.28 were also observed within cases and control cohorts respectively along with an odds-ratio of 5.242 which depicts the AAF is ~5 times higher in cases vs controls. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>In summary, this pilot-scale study has advanced our genomic understanding by examining the variability and association of this <em>LCORL</em> variant (c.828_829insA) within the Pakistani goat population. The insights gained hold promise for enhancing this economically crucial trait through the implementation of marker-assisted breeding strategies in this particular species and warrant further exploration in other livestock species to broaden our understanding and potential applications</p> Areeb Khalid Hajra Ashraf Hibba Asim Maleeka Ayman Rashid Saif Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 46 50 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.46 Detection of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease using Betasatellite-based Molecular Marker http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/45 <p>Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) caused by whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses has hampered cotton production across the Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan and northeastern India. Eight species of begomoviruses in association with a single betasatellite “Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB)” have been reported to cause CLCuD. <strong>Objective:</strong> To detect early and efficiently Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) using betasatellite-based molecular marker. <strong>Methods:</strong> 3-7 samples leaves were collected from symptomatic cotton fields in selected five areas of cotton production in Pakistan. Total DNA was extracted from collected leaves using the Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method. Primers were designed by MUSCLE alignment tool and target region was amplified by PCR and amplification confirmed by performing gel electrophoresis. After DNA sequencing Phylogenetic analysis of the was carried out using software MEGA-X. <strong>Results:</strong> Amplified target region of483bp was observed by running 1% agarose gel. Comparison of DNA sequences revealed two nucleotide substitutions in DNA sequence from samples collected from Multan, Sakrand, Rahim Yar Khan and, while four nucleotide substations in sample collected from Vehari. High nucleotide substation in DNA sequence from Vehari as compared to other regions. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> In conclusion all of eight distinct begomoviruses causing CLCuD with CLCuMB is indicative of the fact that CLCuMB based molecular marker can be developed for detection of the disease. Early detection of disease will help the breeders and farmers to manage the disease.</p> Umer Sohail Meer Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 51 56 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.45 Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV): An Insight into Disaster http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/40 <p>Disaster of cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuVD) is the severe restriction to cotton production wherever it appears, and this dilemma is under discussion by scientist since few decades and still no satisfactory control is obtained. Cotton leaf curl Virus (CLCuV) is a begomovirus belongs to family geminiviridae and transmitted by insect-vector Whitefly complex (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius and Bemisia argentifolii Bellows &amp; Perring). In Pakistan, disease was first reported by scientist on stray plants in 1967 near Multan, Punjab. In 1992-93 disease epidemic cause yield decline from 9.05 million bales to 8.04 million bales cause severe losses to cotton production in Pakistan. During 1996-97 resistant cotton verities against CLCuV were introduced but since 2001 new strain Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus (CLCuBuV) cause another epidemic by breaking resistance in all available verities. Excessive use of pesticides to control vector is the serious environmental threat, caused vector resistance, and are carcinogenic and neurotoxic to humans. This review is to cover the history, spread, major losses, Management, Molecular study of relation between host-pathogen and virus resistance strategies to reduce the use of pesticide.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Noor Hassan Mujahid Hussain Faisal Mushtaq Saqib Ali Muhammad Saqib Shahzad Chaudary Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 02 09 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.40 Unraveling COVID-19: A Global Health Crisis and Ongoing Research http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/47 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic, sparked by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has triggered an unparalleled global health crisis with far-reaching consequences. SARS-CoV-2 primarily spreads through respiratory droplets, utilizing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the respiratory system for cellular entry and replication, underscoring the critical need for preventive measures. The emergence of worrisome mutations has led to the development of more transmissible variants, heightening the virus's potential impact. Diagnostic testing, including reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), antigen detection, and serology, plays a pivotal role in identifying. COVID-19 diagnostic tests include the ABBOTT ID NOW™ COVID-19 test (95% sensitivity and 100% specificity), the COBAS® SARS-CoV-2 test (98.8% sensitivity and 99% specificity), the SOFIA® 2 SARS ANTIGEN FIA test (91.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity), the XPERT® XPRESS SARS-CoV-2 test (95.4% sensitivity and 97% specificity), and the ACCULA SARS-CoV-2 test (98% sensitivity and 100% specificity). While vaccines include the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (95% efficacy), Moderna vaccine (94.10% efficacy), Johnson &amp; Johnson vaccine (66% efficacy), Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine (76% efficacy), Sinovac vaccine (50.38% efficacy), Sinopharm vaccine (79% efficacy), Bharat Biotech (Covaxin) vaccine (81% efficacy), Sputnik V vaccine (91.60% efficacy), Novavax vaccine (96.4% efficacy), and Covovax vaccine (100% efficacy). The COVID-19 pandemic underscores the ongoing necessity for global cooperation among scientific and medical communities to understand this emerging pathogen, mitigate health impacts, and advance long-term solutions through continuous therapeutic and vaccine research.</p> Osama Alam Muhammad Ahmad Munib Qureshi Marina Gul Naveed Khan Abdul Samad Zewran Khan Syed Atiq Arsalan Iqbal Asim Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 10 18 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.47 Futuristic Biotechnology: Paving the Way for Medical Marvels http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/53 <p>In the ever-evolving landscape of science and healthcare, the field of biotechnology is taking giant strides towards a future that promises medical marvels once considered the stuff of science fiction. The fusion of biology and technology has ushered in a new era of possibilities, offering unprecedented opportunities for improved healthcare and well-being. From gene editing to personalized medicine, futuristic biotechnology is now at the forefront of medical innovation, holding the potential to reshape the way we diagnose, treat, and even prevent diseases.</p> <p>One of the most astounding developments in futuristic biotechnology is the advent of gene editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9. This revolutionary technology allows scientists to precisely alter genes, offering the potential to correct genetic defects and mitigate the impact of hereditary diseases. The ability to target and modify specific DNA sequences opens the door to treating a wide array of conditions, from rare genetic disorders to more common ailments, such as cancer. Moreover, the concept of personalized medicine, which tailors treatments to an individual's genetic makeup, is gaining traction. This approach not only enhances the effectiveness of treatments but also minimizes side effects, showcasing the potential to make healthcare truly patient-centric.</p> <p>Regenerative medicine is another area where futuristic biotechnology is making strides, showing great promise for tissue and organ repair. Stem cell therapy, tissue engineering, and 3D bioprinting are just a few of the technologies transforming the landscape of transplantation and tissue repair. These innovations hold the potential to alleviate the shortage of donor organs and provide individuals with custom-made replacement tissues. Furthermore, as we continue to unravel the complexities of the human microbiome, we open the door to new possibilities in disease prevention and treatment. Understanding the role of our microbiota in health and disease has far-reaching implications for conditions ranging from obesity to mental health disorders.</p> <p>While the potential of futuristic biotechnology in the medical realm is exhilarating, it also raises ethical, regulatory, and accessibility questions that must be addressed. As we stand at the threshold of this biotechnological revolution, it is crucial to ensure that these medical marvels are harnessed responsibly and made accessible to all. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that the fusion of biology and technology is pushing the boundaries of what is possible in healthcare. The future of medicine is being shaped by biotechnology, and it holds the promise of a healthier, longer, and more vibrant life for all of us.</p> Fridoon Jawad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 01 01 10.54393/fbt.v3i02.53