Futuristic Biotechnology http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt <p><strong>Title of Journal: Futuristic Biotechnology</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: (E) 2959-0981, (P) 2959-0973</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency: Quarterly (w.e.f September Issue, 2023)</strong></p> <p><strong>Publisher: Lahore Medical Research Center <sup>LLP</sup></strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Aim and Scope</strong></span></p> <p>Futuristic Biotechnology (FBT) publishes broad-spectrum publications with close connection to experimental activity in Biological and Biotechnology fields. FBT is intended for exploring the molecular mechanisms that support key biological processes in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biosciences, molecular biology, plant biotechnology, genetic engineering, nanotechnology, and bioinformatics. Furthermore, it also covers topics related to immunology, antibody production, protein purification studies, primer synthesis, DNA sequencing, production of transgenic animal models, insect resistant crop varieties and edible and ornamental plant varieties.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></span></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 20000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version(Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong>Submissions</strong></p> <p>Submission are welcome and may be submitted here: <u><a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></u></p> en-US <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href="mailto:editor@fbtjournal.com">editor@fbtjournal.com</a></p> editor@fbtjournal.com (Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob) oric@lmrc.com.pk (khurram Mehboob) Sun, 31 Mar 2024 20:13:24 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Eco-Friendly Synthesis Methods of Gold Nanoparticles, Their Characterization and Applications in Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Sensors http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/65 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">Nanoparticles have unique traits which make them useful for different purposes. Numerous methods are used to manufacture nanoparticles at commercial scale. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most utilized and preferred nanoparticles due to their traits like low resistivity, less toxicity, optical, high stability, fluorescence quenching ability, and "surface plasmon resonance". Gold nanoparticles were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0"> in ancient Roman Times for staining glasses and till now their new applications </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">are being discovered every day. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">Various methodologies are </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0"> for </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW26768196 BCX0">Gold</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0"> nanoparticle synthesis including conventional chemical methods, UV rays, polymers, ultrasound, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">plant</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0"> and microbe-mediated techniques, etc. Conventional techniques are not eco-friendly or cost-effective. Nowadays plants and microbes being cost-effective and eco-friendly are preferred for gold nanoparticle synthesis. Various extracellular, intracellular, and biomolecular techniques are being </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0"> to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">manufacture gold nanoparticles. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">Gold nanoparticles have a vast scope in chemical, biomedicine, food, electronic and forensic industries. AuNPs are widely </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">utilized</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0"> as sensors, also as carriers in Drug delivery, Photothermal therapy, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">Heavy metal ion detection etc. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">This review describes various synthesis techniques, applications, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW26768196 BCX0">and characterizations of AuNPs.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW26768196 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Aqsa Jamshaid, Shumaila Ibrahim, Adeeba Ali, Manam Walait, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Bin Saleem, Huda Rehman Mir Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/65 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comprehensive Review of Nanotechnology: Innovations and Multidisciplinary Applications http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/81 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">Nanotechnology, which involves the control of substances at the nanoscale, has </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">emerged</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0"> as a valuable discipline that holds the </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">capacity</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0"> to fundamentally transform </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">numerous</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0"> scientific sectors, such as materials science, healthcare, environmental remediation</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">, and agriculture. This review article explores the uses and advancements of nanotechnology, emphasizing how it might improve crop yield, advance medical treatments, and provide solutions to environmental problems. This also examines revolutionary applicat</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">ions of nanobiotechnology, including CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, targeted drug delivery systems, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. It highlights the potential of these technologies to enhance diagnostic capabilities and pharmaceutical results. It </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">also looks at how nanotechnology is affecting agriculture, with a focus on improvements in food safety, pest and disease control, and crop yield. Additionally, environmental applications are covered, with an emphasis on the use of nanomaterials for sustain</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">able resource management and pollution remediation. The significance of nanotechnology's contributions to green chemistry, its interdisciplinary character, and the challenges and potential for its incorporation into conventional applications are all emphas</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0">ized in the review. The article provides an overview of the </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW174241321 BCX0">current status</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW174241321 BCX0"> and future directions of nanotechnology by discussing the synthesis of nanoparticles, their commercialization, and the challenges surrounding nano-innovations. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW174241321 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Malaika Ajaz, Waleed Rasool, Amna Mahmood Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/81 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Coliform Bacteria in Raw Milk Samples Collected from Industrial Cities of Pakistan http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/90 <p>Antibiotics and heavy metals-resistant bacteria in livestock environments can result in economic losses and raise public health and environmental problems. There is a crisis in the world's access to and pipeline for antibiotics. <strong>Objective:</strong> To screen raw milk samples collected from three different industrial cities Gujranwala, Lahore, and Sheikhupura, situated in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. <strong>Methods:</strong> In this regard, a total of 26 samples were having 84 coliform strains. Separated coliform colonies were processed for Gram's staining, catalase, indole production, and Simmon's citrate and motility tests. <strong>Results:</strong> Metal resistance of bacterial strains was also checked and 39.5% and 45.23% of bacteria were found to be resistant to ZnCl<sub>2</sub> 1% and 0.5%. 69.045% and 77.38% bacteria were found to be resistant to CuSo<sub>4</sub> salt solution1% and 0.5%. 17.85% and 27% bacteria were found to be resistant to Na<sub>2</sub>CrO<sub>4</sub> salt solution1% and 0.5% respectively. 80% of bacteria were found to be resistant to Cefuroxime, 26.19% to Cephradine, 84.52% to Aztroeonam 41.67% to Erythromycin, 91.667% to Trimethoprim 89.28% to Lincomycins. Conclusions: The raw milk samples were not only contaminated with coliforms but the bacteria were also resistant to heavy metals and certain antibiotics which might be considered indicative of industrial and anthropogenic pollution. Cephradine, 84.52% to Aztroeonam 41.67% to Erythromycin, 91.667% to Trimethoprim 89.28% to Lincomycins. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The raw milk samples were not only contaminated with coliforms but the bacteria were also resistant to heavy metals and certain antibiotics which might be considered indicative of industrial and anthropogenic pollution.</p> Andleeb Aslam, Javed Iqbal Qazi, Ali Hasan, Muhammad Ahsan Raza Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/90 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Biochemical Dynamics and Quality Attributes of Strawberry Fruits across Maturity Stages with Respect to Different Preservation Methods http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/98 <p><span data-contrast="auto">Strawberry is nutritious but perishable, and it is susceptible to quality flaws and infections after harvest. </span><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> To examine strawberry biochemical changes with harvest maturity and preservation methods. </span><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Methods:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> The experiment was factorial with a completely randomized design (CRD). Strawberry </span><em><span data-contrast="auto">cv.</span></em><span data-contrast="auto"> Chandler fruit was harvested at three color-based maturation phases (M1: 0% red, M2: 50% red, and M3: 100% red), frozen, and freeze-dried and analyzed for quality. Total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), vitamin C, total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant capacity, SOD, POD, CAT, and organoleptic characteristics were assessed for quality.</span><strong><span data-contrast="auto"> Results: </span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">Due to harvest maturity, completely ripe strawberries displayed higher biochemical properties such as total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and TSS/TA than 50% and 0% of red strawberries. 100% red strawberries also had greater TPC and POD. Compared to strawberries picked during the green stage (0% red color), strawberries harvested at 100% and 50% red color had better aroma, color, and flavor. TSS, TSS/TA, Vitamin C, antioxidants, total phenolic content, and peroxidase were better in freeze-dried strawberries than frozen strawberries. </span><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusions:</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto"> The superior fruit aroma and color rating made frozen strawberries more popular than freeze-dried ones. The preserved fruit retained these qualities better for 7 months in dried storage. This study found that strawberry fruit should be harvested at 100% red and freeze-dried for commercial use.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Mian Muhammad Ahmed, Muhammad Asim, Asif Ali Kaleri, Danish Manzoor, Aatif Ali Rajput, Rabia Laghari, Sajjad Ali Khaki, Abdul Musawwir, Zia Ullah, Waqar Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/98 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Syzygium cumini-mediated Green Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles and Evaluation of their Antibacterial, Antileishmanial, and Antioxidant Activities http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/63 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have gained significant attention due to their environmental friendliness, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">ease</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">, and cost-effectiveness. The present study focused on the synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) using an </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">aqueous</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> leaves extract of </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW198800069 BCX0">Syzygium</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW198800069 BCX0">cumini</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> plant, and the antimicrobial potential of the synthesized NPs.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Methods</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">The synthesis of MgO-NPs was achieved by mixing a solution of magnesium nitrate (Mg (NO</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW198800069 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">3</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">)</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Subscript SCXW198800069 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">2</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> with an </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">aqueous </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">extract obtained from </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">S. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW198800069 BCX0">cumini</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> leaves to reduce the Mg</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun Superscript SCXW198800069 BCX0" data-fontsize="10">+</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> ions. These NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Fourier</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Transform Infrared (FTIR) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Spectroscopy</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">analysis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">,</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Energy-dispersive X-ray </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">(EDX)</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">analysis</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Results</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">The transformation in color of the solution from </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">yellow</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> to deep brown along with the UV absorption peak at 294 nm showed the effective synthesis of MgO-NPs. SEM and XRD data revealed cubic-shaped NPs with an average size of 23.73 nm. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of magnesium and oxygen in the sample at 31.85% and 35.11% weight percentages, respectively. The antibacterial evaluation </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">demonstrated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> effectiveness against the gram-negative strains </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Citrobacter </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW198800069 BCX0">koseri</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> and </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Pseudomonas aeruginosa</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">, with inhibition zones of 28.1</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">±</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">1.25 mm and 27.8</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">±</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">1.25 mm, respectively. MgO-NPs also showed antileishmanial potential against </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Leishmania </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW198800069 BCX0">tropica</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> promastigotes (68.41</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">±</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">0.05% inhibition at 1000µg/ml). Furthermore, the NPs </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">exhibited</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> antioxidant properties (75.12</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">±</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">4.29% at 1 mg/ml) as </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">determined</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> by the DPPH radical scavenging assay.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">Conclusio</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">ns</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">: </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">MgO-NPs synthesized using </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">S. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW198800069 BCX0">cumini</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> plant leaves extract hold </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0">promises</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW198800069 BCX0"> as agents for antibacterial, antileishmanial, and antioxidant applications.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW198800069 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Suliman Syed, Arshad Islam, Ajmal Khan, Iftikhar Ahmad, Tahir Salam, Nadia Irfan Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/63 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Association of MSTN Gene Variant (18:66493737T>C) with Track Performance & Muscle Development in Pakistani Horses http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/89 <p>The horse, revered for its diverse traits including racing prowess, gaitedness, and distinctive behavior, plays a pivotal role in various sports. Numerous studies have linked racing performance in horses to the <em>MSTN</em> gene across global populations. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To investigate the genetic variability of the 18:66493737T&gt;C variant in Pakistani random-bred horses. <strong>Methods:</strong> ARMS-PCR was employed where 24 horses sourced from UVAS equine clinic were genotyped. <strong>Results:</strong> Revealing a population distribution of 54% homozygous wild-type (TT), 41% heterozygous (TC), and 4% homozygous mutant (CC) at this locus. The alternative allele frequency within elite performers and control horses stood at 0.36 and 0.12, respectively. Application of the Chi-Square association test using the PLINK data toolset yielded a highly significant p-value of 7.832×10<sup>-6</sup>. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> This underscores significant genetic variability at the locus in the Pakistani horse population, aligning with global patterns. Future studies are advocated, incorporating racing performance data and encompassing diverse indigenous horse breeds with substantial sample sizes. Identification of subject markers can inform targeted breeding strategies, contributing to the enhancement and preservation of desirable traits across various horse breeds</p> Rashid Saif, Muhammad Hassan Raza, Muhammad Osama Zafar, Wajeeha Tariq, Muhammad Danish, Muhammad Wasim Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/89 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Dietary Supranutritional Selenium on Improving the Meat Quality of Goats http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/91 <p>Selenium (Se) a crucial micronutrient, is required in many biochemical processes in animals. Supranutritional levels of Se in the diet have been suggested to potentially enhance meat quality in livestock. However, limited research exists on the impact of dietary supranutritional Se on meat quality in goats. <strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the influence of dietary supranutritional Se on goat muscle meat quality, examining pH, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking and drip losses, moisture, protein, fat, ash, and glycogen contents. <strong>Methods:</strong> Sixteen male goats were randomly grouped into two viz., A and B (n = 8 per group) and offered basal diets without (group A) or with addition of Se (group B) for 10 weeks. Meat samples were collected from the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles at the completion of trial and the physico-chemical characteristics were determined. <strong>Results:</strong> Supranutritional Se supplementation resulted in significantly higher (P &lt; 0.05) WHC and lower (P &lt; 0.05) cooking and drip losses in both LD and SM muscles compared with control. Additionally, the protein and fat contents were significantly elevated (P &lt; 0.05) and the ash contents lowered (P &lt; 0.05) in both LD and SM muscles of goats fed Se supplemented diet compared with control. However, the pH and glycogen contents were not altered (P &gt; 0.05) between the two groups. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The findings of present trial demonstrated that supranutritional Se supplementation improved the quality of goat meat, contributing to its nutritional value and consumer acceptance.</p> Muhammad Anees Memon, Moolchand Malhi, Allah Bux Kachiwal, Ghulam Shabir Barham Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/91 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Toxicity Evaluation and Tissue Damaging Effects of Lead in Labeo Rohita http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/106 <p>Heavy metal contamination of aquatic ecosystems due to industrialization and anthropogenic activities has become a serious global issue. Toxic effects of these heavy metals are posing a major threat to the aquatic organisms especially fish. Fishes exposed to lead (Pb), exhibit a wide-range of effects including muscular and neurological degeneration and destruction, growth inhibition, mortality, reproductive problems, and paralysis. Many fish species are used as food source by man. Bio magnification of these metals makes them hazardous for humans. <strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the acute toxicity (96-hr LC<sub>50</sub> and lethal concentrations) of Pb in <em>Labeo rohita </em>and the effect of various sub-lethal doses of Pb on different organs (Gills, Liver, and Muscles) of fish. <strong>Methods: </strong>Live fish samples (150) were shifted from hatchery to laboratory. To measure metal (Pb), accumulation in fish body inductively coupled Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed. <strong>Results:</strong> Acute toxicity (96-hr LC<sub>50</sub>) of Pb was observed as 52.20 mg/l, while Pb accumulation was noted more in gills as compared to liver and muscles. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study will provide baseline information for the control of aquatic pollution and conservation of aquatic organisms</p> Muhammad Ahsan Raza, Syeda Alveena Hashmi, Ali Hasan, Husna Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/106 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Determining Acid-Bile Optimization and Correlation between Optical Density and the Colony Forming Units of Lactobacilli Species http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/101 <p>Different research practices are being done with time to check the fruitful aspects of probiotics administration in food. In this regard, a specific number of probiotics is mixed in the food and presented to the experimental animals in laboratory to the fruitful impacts of probiotics on host. <strong>Objective:</strong> To design the standard curve between optical density and the number of colony-forming units. <strong>Methods: </strong><em>Lactobacilli</em> species were grown in broth and their colony forming units (CFU) were calculated at different dilutions. In addition to this, relationship between optical density and number of colony forming units and acid-bile tolerance of these <em>Lactobacilli</em> species were also found out. <strong>Results:</strong> It was observed that <em>L. paracasii, L. delbrueckii, L. rhamnosus</em>, and <em>L. brevis</em> showed optimum rates with the Mean±SEM values of 2.56±0.04 on pH 7, 2.51±0.04 on pH 7.5, 2.46±0.04 on pH 7.5 and 2.54±0.02 on pH 7 respectively (p &lt;0.0001). Similarly, all these isolates (<em>L. paracasii, L. delbrueckii, L. rhamnosus, and L. brevis</em>) showed maximum growth rates on bile concentration of 0.1, and their Mean±SEM values of optical densities were 1.83±0.10, 2.36±0.25, 2.50±0.31, 1.58±0.10 respectively (p &lt;0.0001). Means were compared by ANOVA employing SPSS 20.0. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The study provided insights in conducting different research practices on probiotics in future.</p> Shamsa Jabeen, Ali Hasan, Muhammad Rizwan, Hina Javed, Muhammad Ahsan Raza, Shehzad Ahmad, Ali Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/101 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Screen Time on Biogenic Amines, Gross Behavior and Histological Conditions of Rat’s Brain http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/104 <p>Neurotransmitters and hormones work together in a complex way in the body to control mental and physical processes. <strong>Objective:</strong> To focus on dopamine, a crucial neurotransmitter produced by mesencephalic neurons in both the brain and peripheral organs. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted on albino rats weighing 180-200 gm. The rats were introduced into the new apparatus designed with the measurements of 40 x 40 cm in length, 25 x 25 cm in breadth, and 30 cm in height on all four sides. All sides were painted black except one mounted with (Light Emitted Diode) LED display. Rats were shown the screen for 1 hour daily for 30 minutes with high pixel resolutions and bright colors. The tested group was then compared with the control group on the 30th day on the parameters of gross behavior, biogenic amines of brains, and brain histopathology. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed anxiety and hyperactive behavior in gross studies. Biogenic amines showed an increase in 2-amino 5-methyl benzoic acid that is the dopamine precursor. The study indicated that low levels of pyrrolidine, which decreased (Gamma Aminobutyric Acid) GABA in the brain, ultimately caused sleep disorders. Histopathological studies also showed the degeneration of neuronal cells in tested brains compared to control. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The changes found in rats might be useful in determining the drawbacks of using mobiles, tabs, and other screen time</p> Rabia Munawwar, Humaira Anser, Zunash Fatima, Rabeeya Rehman, Javeria Iftikhar, Sana Sarfraz, Kiran Rafiq Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/104 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Carboxysomes: Green Solutions for Sustainable Agriculture and Renewable Energy http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/97 <p><span data-contrast="auto">Carboxyomes are emerging as potential tools in the sustainable agriculture and biofuel production. They are proteinaceous organelles that are distributed in different species of photosynthetic bacteria and archaea and are significantly involved in carbon fixation. They enable the organisms to thrive in diverse environmental conditions and enhance the efficacy of photosynthesis. They have shown promising potential to address challenging regarding global food security, climate change and renewable energy.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">These nanocompartments encapsulate Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), an enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle that is a key pathway in carbon fixation. These specialized structures concentrate CO</span><span data-contrast="auto">2 </span><span data-contrast="auto">around RuBisCO ad shield it from the competing oxygen, thereby optimizing the efficiency of photosynthetic process and minimize wasteful photorespiration. The photosynthetic organisms having carboxysomes are therefore ideal candidates for sustainable agriculture as they are able to thrive in the harsh conditions such as low CO</span><span data-contrast="auto">2</span><span data-contrast="auto"> concentrations, water scarcity and high temperatures. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">They are recently being studied for enhancing the productivity and yield of crops. Efforts are being exerted to introduce carboxysome shell proteins and RuBisCO enzymes into crop genomes. Researchers are aiming to create plants with the ability to efficiently capture and utilize CO</span><span data-contrast="auto">2</span><span data-contrast="auto"> for photosynthesis. These genetically modified crops can potentially increase crop yields, improve water and nutrient efficiency significantly. Moreover, these carboxysomal transgenes are also able to enhance the resilience of GM plants to different environmental stressors such as drought and heat, and ultimately contribute to global food security and sustainable agriculture.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">In addition to their applications in agriculture, carboxysomes hold promise for biofuel production as well, as they are capable of carbon fixation. They have enabled researchers to engineer photosynthetic organisms to produce renewable fuels such as ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen. Furthermore, nanobioreactors that are based on carboxysomes can contribute protectively against climate change as they have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by capturing CO</span><span data-contrast="auto">2</span><span data-contrast="auto"> from industrial emissions and converting it into valuable bioproducts.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-contrast="auto">This approach represents a promising avenue to address global challenges of food insecurity, climate crisis and rapidly declining non-renewable energy sources. If leveraged appropriately, these nanocompartments can significantly contribute in paving a way for more sustainable and resilient future. </span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:360}"> </span></p> <p><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:200,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> Fridoon Jawad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Futuristic Biotechnology https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://fbtjournal.com/index.php/fbt/article/view/97 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000