Ameliorative Effects of Orange Juice on Sodium Fluoride Induced Gastro-Hepatic Toxicity in Mice

Ameliorative Effects of Orange Juice on Sodium


  • Ata ul Mustafa Fahid Institute of Zoology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Azeem Azam Institute of Zoology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Farhan Anjum Institute of Zoology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Hamza Faseeh Institute of Zoology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Rabia Bano Department of Zoology, Division of Science, University of Education, Pakistan
  • Sana Kausar Institute of Zoology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Attiq ur Rehman Institute of Zoology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Maryam Latif Institute of Zoology, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan



Orange Juice, Sodium Fluoride, Gastro-Hepatic Toxicity


Floride toxicity has been under discussion and investigations when taken in excess amounts. Floride leaching into the water bodies as a result of industrialization is a common issue facing most of the developing countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh etc. This leached fluoride has the ability to cause a myriad of disorders when incorporated in animal bodies. Objective: To find out the ameliorative effect of orange juice against toxic effects of sodium fluoride influencing damaging effect on liver and stomach. Methods: The mice were divided in six groups. The control group was only Nestle’s water, while different concentrations of sodium fluoride (2.50µg/g, 5.00µg/g and 7.50µg/g body weight) were prepared and administered orally in mice for 30 days. Then all treated groups were supplied with fresh natural orange juice for next 30 days to test its ameliorative potential. Results: The data revealed the significant reduction of body weight (p<0.001), stomach length, stomach diameter (p < 0.05) while hepato- somatic and gastro-somatic index increased (p < 0.05) in treated groups as compared to control group after sodium fluoride administration. Morphological studies revealed different abnormalities in treated groups such as spots on the liver and stomach, swelling of stomach, constriction of fundic and cardiac regions and lobes of liver. Conclusions: This study clearly revealed that sodium fluoride is potentially toxic to organs of albino mice, especially liver and stomach and that orange juice demonstrated ameliorative potential against the toxicity due to sodium fluoride.  


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DOI: 10.54393/fbt.v3i03.78
Published: 2023-12-31

How to Cite

Fahid, A. ul M., Azam, A., Anjum, F., Faseeh, H., Bano, R., Kausar, S., ur Rehman, A., & Latif, M. (2023). Ameliorative Effects of Orange Juice on Sodium Fluoride Induced Gastro-Hepatic Toxicity in Mice : Ameliorative Effects of Orange Juice on Sodium . Futuristic Biotechnology, 3(03), 44–50.